Are Facial Expressions Universal?
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Learn about common ancestors shared by every human; evolution’s multiple directions; and universal facial expressions. There's a point in the past when every person on Earth was an ancestor to every person alive today by Grant Currin Hershberger, S. (2020, October 5). Humans Are All More Closely Related Than We Commonly Think. Scientific American.  Hopkin, M. (2004). Human populations are tightly interwoven. Nature.  Numberphile. (2019). EVERY baby is a ROYAL baby - Numberphile [YouTube Video]. In YouTube.  Rohde, D. L. T., Olson, S., & Chang, J. T. (2004). Modelling the recent common ancestry of all living humans. Nature, 431(7008), 562–566.  Evolution Doesn’t Have Just One Direction by Ashley Hamer Is the human race evolving or devolving? (1998, July 20). Scientific American.  ‌Waimanu, the first penguin. (2010, January 30). March of the Fossil Penguins; March of the Fossil Penguins.  ‌Morber, J. (2016, October 6). 5 Times Evolution Ran in “Reverse.” Science; National Geographic.  ‌Elliott, K. H., Ricklefs, R. E., Gaston, A. J., Hatch, S. A., Speakman, J. R., & Davoren, G. K. (2013). High flight costs, but low dive costs, in auks support the biomechanical hypothesis for flightlessness in penguins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(23), 9380–9384.  ‌How Birds Lost Their Teeth. (2014, December 12). Audubon.  The evolution of whales. (2021).  ‌How did whales lose their hind legs? - Popular Mechanics. (2006, May 23). Popular Mechanics.  Are facial expressions universal? by Ashley Hamer (Listener question from Jared in Vancouver) Price, M. (2016, October 17). Facial expressions—including fear—may not be as universal as we thought. Science | AAAS.  ‌Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1971). Constants across cultures in the face and emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 17(2), 124–129.  Crivelli, C., Russell, J. A., Jarillo, S., & Fernández-Dols, J.-M. (2016). The fear gasping face as a threat display in a Melanesian society. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(44), 12403–12407.  Krys, K., Melanie Vauclair, C., et. al. (2015). Be Careful Where You Smile: Culture Shapes Judgments of Intelligence and Honesty of Smiling Individuals. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 40(2), 101–116.  Follow Curiosity Daily on your favorite podcast app to learn something new every day withCody Gough andAshley Hamer — for free!  See for privacy information.
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